Posts Tagged ‘Applications’
There is a spectrum of implementation that divides the work between client and server differently. Processing can be allocated in a number of ways. There are several major operations for database applications. They are host based processing, server based processing, client based processing, and Cooperative based processing.
Host based processing is not true client/server computing. Rather, host based processing refers to the traditional main frame environment in which all or virtually all of the processing is done on a central host. Often the user interface is through a dub terminal. Even if the user is employing a micro computer, the user`s station is generally limited to the role of a terminal emulator.
The most basic class of client/server configuration is one in which the server is principally responsible for providing a graphical user interface, whereas virtually all of the processing is done on the server. This configuration is typical of early client/server efforts, especially departmental-level systems. The rationale behind such configurations is that the user workstation is best suited to provide a user-friendly interface and those databases and applications can easily be maintained on central systems. Although the user gains the advantage of a better interface, this type of configuration does not generally lend itself to any significant gains in productivity or to any fundamental changes in the actual business functions that the system supports.
At the other extreme, virtually all application processing may be done at the client, with the exception of data validation routines and other database logic functions that are best performed at the server. Sophisticated database logic functions are housed on the Read the rest of this entry »
Having already discussed the relevance of Java Technologies at “Oracle E-Business Suite Customization: New Directions”. Not only for Oracle Company itself, but also for the Oracle E-Business customers, whose investments must be preserved. At present tools and frameworks are offered, of which you will use if you intend to develop in Java. Java language itself is an object oriented language, therefore if you are not accustomed to this paradigm, it is strongly recommended that you study this paradigm that is already fully developed. In order to develop in Java you will use a lot of standards and libraries, they are known by its name, J2ME, J2SE and J2EE, to portable, standard and enterprise applications respectively; Jdeveloper is an integrated development environment (IDE) built in Java for Java development. It is complete considering the development life cycle, so you can model, code, debug, test and deploy. It is prepared for Web, XML, Web Services, SQL, J2EE and Oracle ADF development. It provides built-in features for open sources tools and frameworks, like Struts, Ant, JUnit and CVS. As said by Oracle, JDeveloper is the tool of choice for Forms, Reports and Designer customers because it carries a similar development model.
Struts is a java framework considered a de facto standard to build web applications. It is a is a solution to systematize what was happing when people used Java Servlets and JSP liberally. Struts implements the (MVC) Mode View Controller pattern, with the intent of separating business logic (Model) from web application flow of control (Controller) and JSP/html code (View).
J2EE is a structural design, its purpose is to define standards to resolve enterprise level problems, like persistence, scalability, availability, security, distributed computing and so on. This standard should be followed by application server vendors, so a J2EE application would run on any J2EE application server complaint, like Oracle OC4J (OAS), IBM Web Sphere, BEA Web Logic, JBoss, the lists goes on and on. It is not a simple architecture to fix a simple problem. Be prepared to study and comprehend the complexity of enterprise programming.
EJB is a J2EE standard to identify components in order to write business logic at the server side, to define a domain layer to access data and to deal with asynchronous and filing messages. The last EJB standard release which is the 3.0, became much simpler to develop with. The previous one (the 2.0 and 2.1) should be used with a series of design patterns to solve usual problems, what make the code not so easy to program and understand. The first one (the 1.0 and 1.1) was of no use to enterprise level development, it did not implement even a one to many relationship. Oracle ADF in accordance to Oracle, is an application development framework designed to simplify J2EE development and gain productivity and ease of use of Oracle forms to the J2EE platform. ADF with JDeveloper is the ideal choice for Oracle E-Business Suite, due to the fact that Oracle made this environment recognizable to Oracle Forms, Reports and Designer developers.
For more information about Oracle consulting or even about Oracle applications and especially about Oracle licenses please review one of these links.
M- COMMERCE AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Dr. (Mrs).R. RAJESWARI, Reader in Commerce,
Sri Sarada College for Women (Autonomous), Salem -16.
”Mobile Commerce is any transaction, involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services, which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device.”
”Mobile Commerce is the use of information technologies and communication technologies for the purpose of mobile integration of different value chains an business processes, and for the purpose of management of business relationships.”
- Webagency, 2001
M-commerce is not just about using mobile phones as end user devices. The following list gives an overview of different kinds of mobile devices.
M-COMMERCE VERSUS E-COMMERCE
In comparison to e-commerce, m-commerce offers both advantages and disadvantages. The following list summarises the advantages of m-commerce:
¨ Ubiquity: The use of wireless device enables the user to receive information and conduct transactions anywhere, at anytime.
¨ Accessibility: Mobile device enables the user to be contacted at virtually anytime and place. The user also has the choice to limit their accessibility to particular persons or times.
¨ Convenience: The portability of the wireless device and its functions from storing data to access to information or persons.
¨ Localization: The emergence of location-specific based applications will enable the user to receive relevant information on which to act.
¨ Instant Connectivity (2.5G): Instant connectivity or “always on” is becoming more prevalent will the emergence of 2.5 G networks, GPRS or EDGE. Users of 2.5 G services will benefit from easier and faster access to the Internet.
¨ Personalization: The combination of localization and personalization will create a new channel/business opportunity for reaching and attracting customers. Personalization will take the form of customized information, meeting the users’ preferences, followed by payment mechanisms that allow for personal information to be stored, eliminating the need to enter credit card information for each transaction.
¨ Time Sensitivity – Access to real-time information such as a stock quote that can be acted upon immediately or a sale at a local boutique.
¨ Security – depending on the specific end user device, the device offers a certain level of inherent security.
The following list summarises the disadvantages of m-commerce:
AREAS / USES OF M-COMMERCE
In the current commerce industry, mobile commerce or M-Commerce has been entered in finance, services, retails, tele-communication and information technology services. In these sectors, M-Commerce is not only being widely accepted but also it is being more used as a popular way of business/ commerce.
The general m-commerce applications are:
Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using a variety of technologies. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately by presenting their phones at the venue.
Tickets can be booked and cancelled on the mobile with the help of simple application downloads or by accessing WAP portals of various Travel agents or direct service providers. Mobile ticketing for airports, ballparks, and train stations, for example, will not only streamline unexpected metropolitan traffic surges, but also help users remotely secure parking spots (even while in their vehicles) and greatly facilitate mass surveillance at transport hubs.
Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers, coupons and loyalty cards. The voucher, coupon, or loyalty card is represented by a virtual token that is sent to the mobile phone. Presenting a mobile phone with one of these tokens at the point of sale allows the customer to receive the same benefits as another customer who has a loyalty card or other paper coupon/voucher. Mobile delivery enables:
Currently, mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale of ring-tones, wallpapers, and games for mobile phones. The convergence of mobile phones, mp3 players and video players into a single device will result in an increase in the purchase and delivery of full-length music tracks and video. Download speeds, if increased to 4G levels, will make it possible to buy a movie on a mobile device in a couple of seconds, while on the go.
Unlike a home PC, the location of the mobile phone user is an important piece of information used during mobile commerce transactions. Knowing the location of the user allows for location based services such as:
A wide variety of information services can be delivered to mobile phone users in much the same way as it is delivered to PCs. These services include:
Particularly, more customized traffic information, based on users’ travel patterns, will be multicast on a differentiated basis, instead of broadcasting the same news and data to all Users. This type of multicasting will be suited for more bandwidth-intensive mobile equipment.
Banks and other financial institutions are exploring the use of mobile commerce to allow their customers to not only access account information, but also make transactions, e.g. purchasing stocks, remitting money, via mobile phones and other mobile equipment. This service is often referred to as Mobile Banking or M-Banking. More negative issues like ID theft, phishing and pharming are lurking when it comes to mobile banking, particularly done on the mobile web. Net security technology free from redundancy and paradigm shifts away from mobile web-based banking will be an optimal solution to mobile banking in the near future.
Stock market services offered via mobile devices have also become more popular and are known as Mobile Brokerage. They allow the subscriber to react to market developments in a timely fashion and irrespective of their physical location.
Over the past three years Mobile reverse action solutions have grown in popularity. Unlike traditional auctions, the reverse auction (or low-bid auction) bills the consumer’s phone each time they place a bid. Many mobile PSMS commerce solutions rely on a one-time purchase or one-time subscription; however, reverse auctions are high return applications as they allow the consumer to transact over a long period of time.
Mobile purchase allows customers to shop online at any time in any location. Customers can browse and order products while using a cheap, secure payment method. Instead of using paper catalogues, retailers can send customers a list of products that the customer would be interested in, directly to their mobile device or consumers can visit a mobile version of a retailer’s ecommerce site. Additionally, retailers will also be able to track customers at all times and notify them of discounts at local stores that the customer would be interested in.
Mobile marketing is an emerging concept, but the speed with which it’s growing its roots is remarkable. Mobile marketing is highly responsive sort of marketing campaign, especially from brands’ experience point of view. And almost all brands are getting higher campaign response rates. Corporations are now using m-commerce to expand everything from services to marketing and advertisement. Although there are currently very few regulations on the use and abuses of mobile commerce, this will change in the next few years. With the increased use of m-commerce comes increased security. Cell phone companies are now spending more money to protect their customers and their information from online intrusions and hackers.
The main payment methods used to enable mobile commerce are:
CATEGORISATION OF M-PAYMENT SYSTEMS
Most e-payment systems are not suitable for use in a mobile context that is, using a mobile device and communicating over a mobile telecommunication network. This is due to the special characteristics of mobile devices and mobile telecommunications. In the following, we categorise m-payment systems according to the whereabouts of the customer’s money:
Software Electronic Coins
In this case, monetary value is stored on the mobile device and the customer has full control of his/her money wherever he/she goes and whatever he/she does. An electronic coin is represented as a file containing, among other information, a value, a serial number, a validity period and the signature of the issuing bank. Since software electronic coins are easy to copy, the validity of an electronic coin depends on its uniqueness in terms of its serial number. The customer transfers electronic coins to the merchant, who forwards them to the issuing bank for the “double spending test.”
Hardware Electronic Coins
In this case, monetary value is stored on a secure hardware token, typically a smart card, in the mobile device. The presentation of electronic money is not important, as long as it is stored securely on the smart card. Electronic money could be represented as a simple numeric counter. In order to get to the money, the customer’s smart card and the merchant’s payment server authenticate each other and a secure channel is set up between them. Then, electronic money can be transferred from one to the other. This approach is quite attractive because smart cards provide an additional level of mobility. That means the payment smart card can also be used in POS transactions. E.g., Geldkarte, Mondex and Barclay card.
Here, the money is stored remotely on an account at a trusted third party. Depending on the specific payment system, the account could be a credit card account, a bank account, or an account held at the network operator. For example, in some cases this data is sent in the clear (e.g. a credit card authorisation) not providing any security against eavesdropping and in some cases this information is encrypted and digitally signed, providing anonymity to the customer (e.g. SET – Secure Electronic Transactions).
KEY ISSUES OF M-COMMERCE
The success of M-Commerce depends on:
As m-commerce applications and wireless devices are evolving rapidly, one will take forward the other one towards empowering innovation, versatility and power in them. There are a number of business opportunities and grand challenges of bringing forth viable and robust wireless technologies ahead for fully realizing the enormous strength of m-commerce in this Internet era and thereby meeting both the basic requirements and advanced expectations of mobile users and providers.
There are news articles and pictures displaying people, who are ordering things over the Internet while waiting for a bus, downloading merchant coupons on their PDAs as they enter a store or bidding for the last table at a hot restaurant by digital phone in a spur-of-the-moment auction. Actually this process represents a tip of a very big iceberg. The advent of m-commerce, as widely referred to among the users, has far-reaching implications. But there are many limitations in the technologies that Once its relevant technologies get matured, widely available and competent, the host of portable devices will be ready to handle the bigger transactional activities not envisioned so far successfully apart from these minor activities. One of the main feature challenges will be to unify payment solutions, providing the highest possible level of security.